The initial section of which three-region blog post is targeted on Part 523 (a)(8)(A)(i). Another and you will 3rd places talk about Area 523 (a)(8)(A)(ii) and you can Section 523 (a)(8)(B), correspondingly.
Section 523 (a)(8)(A)(i) (hereinafter “AI”) is the first sub-section of Section 523 (a)(8). The text of AI states that a debt incurred by an “an educational benefit overpayment or loan made, insured, or guaranteed by a governmental unit, or made under any program funded in whole or in part by a governmental unit or non-profit institution” is non-dischargeable.
The second use of the word “or” separates AI into two clauses. There are two notable distinctions between the two clauses. The first distinction is that the first clause is limited to “loans,” whereas “the second clause of AI concerns loan programs, [not] particular loans.” In re O’Brien 318 B.R. 258, 262 (S.D.N.Y. 2004) (emphasis added) (citations omitted). The other notable difference is that the first clause is limited to loans by a “governmental unit,” and the second clause includes governmental units and non-profit institutions.
See in re also Hammarstrom 95 B.R. 160, 165 (Bankr.Letter.D.Cal. 1989) (“[f]irst, the borrowed funds should be generated pursuant to a good “program” having delivering informative fund. Next, you to program need to be “funded” about simply of the a low-funds business”).
Bankruptcy Courts usually see that the very first ability is came across in the event the a low-profit organization is part of a program you to definitely facilitates the fresh pupil mortgage on borrower. Such as for instance, for the Hemar Services Corp., Inc. v. Pilcher 149 B.Roentgen. 595 (Bankr.9th Cir. 1993), the new debtor gotten student loans regarding that loan system funded of the numerous low-earnings and also for-profit organizations. The Bankruptcy Court discovered that new collector found the initial ability given that a low-profit entity that has been a person in financing program you to definitely given informative financing in order to people needing financial help . See Pilcher 149 B.R. in the 598. The original element is very easy in order to meet and you may, this is why, Bankruptcy proceeding Courts have a tendency to neglect otherwise do not get to know the first prong of your own AI study.
Embracing another function, the fresh new Case of bankruptcy Judge within the For the re Hammarstrom held the identity “funded” form a low-finances place you to “plays any meaningful region for the taking financing” into the mortgage system. From inside the re Hammarstrom, 95 B.Roentgen. from the 165. Bankruptcy proceeding Process of law consistently believe in During the re also Hammarstrom since it try among the first personal bankruptcy circumstances to determine the phrase “funded” since the used in the second clause out-of AI. Specific Bankruptcy Process of law provides kept you to a low-earnings establishment fund a loan system in the event it orders the latest cards generated according to the mortgage system of an exclusive, industrial bank.
By way of example, during the Inside re Hammarstrom, new non-money organization and a personal financial entered to your an agreement wherein the personal lender perform do the brand new cards for the debtors and loan money straight to the young. Following the bank paid the borrowed funds continues, the latest low-profit organization carry out immediately buy the notes about lender and you may create be a creditor of debtors. The newest Personal bankruptcy Judge learned that the loan system framework generated the fresh new industrial bank nothing more than a representative with the non-money organization to help they progress funds getting blog post-supplementary education. The brand new Case of bankruptcy Court determined that this new non-cash entity financed the loan program because purchased every one of new notes in system in the totally new financial and you may alleviated the financial institution from its responsibilities and you will personal debt in same.